5G Technology In India
5G is the fifth generation of new cellular wireless technology that started broad deployment in 2019. The covered areas are divided into regions, called "cells," serviced by individual antennas, as with previous standards. Virtually every single provider of telecom services in the developed world deploys antennas, or intends to deploy them soon. The 5G frequency range is classified into millimetre, mid–band, and low–band waves. Low–band use a frequency range close to that of the predecessor, 4G.
The 5G millimetre wave is the fastest, with real velocities typically 1–2 GB / S less. Frequencies are above 24 GHz to a maximum of 72 GHz which is above the lower limit of the extremely high frequency band. The reach is short so it requires more cells. Millimetre waves have difficulty crossing many walls and windows, so the coverage indoors is minimal.
The most widely deployed 5 G mid–band, in over 20 networks. In a 100 MHz wide band, speeds are usually down to 100–400 MB / s. The speeds can go over a gigabit per second in the laboratory and occasionally in the field. Deployed frequencies are 2.4 GHz to 4.2 GHz. Sprint and China Mobile use 2.5 GHz while others are mainly between 3.3 and 4.2 GHz, a range that offers greater coverage. Many areas can simply be protected by upgrading existing towers to reduce costs.
Low band 5 G offers similar features to enhanced 4G. The first week of December 2019 saw T–Mobile and AT&T announce low-band services. T–Mobile CTO Neville Ray warns that rates can be as low as 25 Mbit / s down on its 600 MHz 5G. For 2019, AT&T will also usually produce less than 100 Mbit / s, utilizing 850 MHz. Performance can change but in the same spectrum, it can't be much better than strong 4G.
Verizon, AT&T and nearly all 5 G suppliers have latencies between 25–35 milliseconds in 2019. The "Air Latency" in 2019 equipment (between a phone and a tower) is 8–12 ms. The server latency, further back in the network, raises the average to ~30 ms, 25–40 per cent lower than the typical 4G deployed. Adding "Edge Servers" near the towers can reduce latency to 10–20 ms. Lower latency, like the often advertised 1 ms, is years away and does not include the server time.
The 3GPP industry initiative describes any system that uses "5G NR" (5 G New Radio) software as "5G," a term that was used in general by the end of 2018. Many previously reserved the term for devices that offer 20 GHz mutual frequencies, which ITU IMT–2020 called for. 3GPP submits to ITU its 5G NR. 5 G NR also addresses specific requirements for private mobile networks, from industrial IoT to critical communications, in addition to traditional mobile operator services.
5G networks are digital wireless services which differentiate the coverage area covered by operators into small geographical regions called cells. In the telephone, analog signals depicting sounds and images are duplicated, converted by an electronic to a virtual converter, and transmitted as bits. The local antennas are connected via a high bandwidth optical fiber or wireless backhaul link to the telephone network and the internet. As with other cell networks, a mobile device that traverses from one cell to another is instantly smoothly "turned over" to the new cell.
Verizon and a handful of others use millimetre waves. Millimetre waves have a smaller range than microwaves, so the cells are restricted and smaller. Millimetre waves do have more trouble driving crossing via building walls. Millimetre wave antennas are smaller than commonly used cellular networks with large antennas. We are only a couple of inches long (several centimetres). Every cell will have separate antennas that communicate with the wireless connection, received by different multiple antennas in the device, thereby transmitting multiple bit streams of data simultaneously, in parallel. The base station computer will continuously determine the best route for radio waves to reach each wireless router in a technique known beamforming, and will coordinate several antennas to work together as phased arrays to generate beams of millimetre waves to reach the devices.
Utilizing mid–band spectrum, more than 20 networks are deployed, from 2,4 to 4,2 GHz. Mid-band networks have greater reach, bringing the cost close to 4G. The 3GPP developed and revised the Unified Wireless Telecommunications Program. The family is a complete revision of GSM in terms of coding approaches and hardware, though some GSM sites may be retrofitted to communicate in the format UMTS / W–CDMA.
5G Speed – Performance
At the outset, 5 G velocities range from ~50 Mbit / s to over 2 gigabits, and are expected to grow to 100Gbps, 100x faster than 4G. The quickest 5 G, dubbed milimetreWave, delivers velocities of up to and over 2Gbps. Just since July 3, 2019, milimetreWave on AT&T's 5 G network had a top speed of 1.8Gbps, much higher than the top speed of 23.6Mbps on T–Mobile's network.
Sub–6 GHz 5 g (Mid–band 5G), now the most common, can typically deliver between 100 and 400 Mbps, but would be much wider than milimetreWave, not restricted to walls, trees and other hazards that interfere with milimetreWave transmission.
Low–band coverage offers the most remote coverage of the region, but is slower than most of the others, though faster than 4G. 5G NR capacity can be substantially higher in sub-6 GHz bands than 4 G with equivalent spectrum and antennas, even though some 3GPP 5 G networks will be slower than some advanced 4G networks, such as T–Mobile's LTE / LAA network, which hits 500 + Mbps in Manhattan and Chicago.
The 5G specification also enables LAA (License Assisted Access), but LAA is not yet proven in 5G. Adding LAA to an existing 4G setup can add hundreds of megabits per second to the speed, but this is a 4G extension, not a new part of the 5G standard.
The similarities in the current bands in terms of the throughput between 4 G and 5 G is because 4 G is already hitting the Shannon cap on data communication speeds. 5 G velocities can be substantially higher in the less common millimetre wave spectrum, with much more sufficient bandwidth and shorter range, and hence greater frequency reusability.
Benefits of 5G Technology
The first improvement that excites most is the enhanced pace. Although 4 G currently has 20Mbps download speeds, 5 G is projected to reach 500 to 1500 Mbps — almost instantly. Customers might be delighted with being able to stream a Netflix movie in seconds, but there are some very important client applications that will make this pace possible.
The world is mobile now. Through 2020 we will have 30 billion connected devices, and with Internet usage cases of things technology projected to continue to develop, our already congested spectrum bands will only get worse. This results in service interruptions that could be devastating if autonomous vehicles are on the road or in some health–care situations. Tapping into 5G technology allows many network capacities to be used in the same area at once.
The 5 G antennas are much smaller and can thus be placed in a number of places which would never have existed in the past. This could mean that 5 G antennas will be on every lamppost in urban areas. Ultimately through coverage would depend on the expansion of cell towers by carriers.
The four big U.S. networks have restricted 5 G network deployments in use today and most countries probably won't have 5 G services available until 2020. There's quite a bit of action behind the scenes from regulators, wireless carriers and telecommunications manufacturers to get everything in place to allow a full-scale 5 G rollout. Check out Race to 5 G page to see the advancement.